IVE vs. 2D vs. Spoken for Word Memorisation


This comparative study investigates whether different types of interaction technology have an effect on users' memorisation of second language words.

It explores three types of computer interaction technology: traditional human interface devices (MKM: mouse, keyboard, monitor), voice interaction (VI: e.g. smart speakers) and immersive technology (IVE: head-mounted immersive virtual environments w/ embodied interaction), across three types of words: nouns, verbs and spatial deixis (word relating to a location within an environment).

This research is important as the newer interaction paradigms are already being used in place of the traditional human interface devices by consumers, but research is unclear on the benefits and drawbacks of using different interaction methods for different activities. This research seeks to explore if a distinction exists in the language learning space, through an examination of users' memorisation of nouns, verbs and spatial deixis after exposure to each interaction type.

We believe that the immersive technology will prove more useful for the memorisational of spatial deixis than the other two, while both nouns and verbs will be learned less effectively via voice interaction.

Design Questions

  • Different environments have different design paradigms - how do I handle that? Do I make the general experience as universal as possible, or tailor to each typical design paradigm?
  • For nouns, do I combine individual nouns into one environment, or display each separately?
  • Does using embodied technology change the activity between MKM and IVE? Should I add the ability to manipulate items with mouse and keyboard into MKM environment, as one can do in the IVE w/ embodied controllers?
  • For verbs, should I encourage participants to make the actions in all environments? Is another interesting question “at what rate do people participant in actions in in IVE vs VI”? Should IVE interaction have interactive cues for the interactions? E.g. water that comes out of a kettle when you are learning “pour”? Would the equivalent in VI be playing a sound of water pouring?

Key Question

Do interaction methods have a notable impact of L2 word memorisation, and does it depend on the type of word?


  • Spatial deixis and deictic expression will be best learned in the IVE
  • Nouns will be best learned in the IVE
  • Verbs will be best learned in the IVE
  • VI will be the least effective at teaching all word types


  • Interaction technology
  • Word type

Recognition Measurements

  • Word recognition rate (and confidence) immediately after
  • Word recognition rate (and confidence) in one week
  • Enjoyment
  • Anxiety


  • IVE vs VI vs MKM overall
  • IVE vs VI vs MKM deixis
  • IVE vs VI vs MKM noun
  • IVE vs VI vs MKM verb

Conducting the experiment

  1. Put 33% of participants in VI
  2. Put 33% of participants in IVE
  3. Put 33% of participants in MKM

Analyse results

There are multiple methods for examining

  • All
    • Compare average